Public Policy Formulation-2: Process & Challenges

Iron Triangle of Public Policy

There is a complex relationship among the institutions responsible for formulating and implementing public policies in a country. All these actors could be grouped into three distinct categories namely political elites (government and opposition), bureaucracy (civilian and military), and private sector, both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. Every entity in these categories strives hard to safeguard its respective vested corporate interests more than the stated welfare objectives in such a way that even without entering into a formal or informal understanding, its core interests are always protected.


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  1. Public Policy Formulation-1: Definition, Types, & Components



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Shahid Hussain Raja

Shahid Hussain Raja

Retired Federal Secretary, Government of Pakistan/Author/Independent Consultant- Public Policy & Governance Reforms