Islamic Civilization: Features, Achievements, and Challenges

Shahid H. Raja
7 min readAug 29, 2023



Islamic civilization refers to the cultural, social, intellectual, and artistic achievements and developments that have emerged within societies that are predominantly influenced by Islamic principles and values. It is important to note that Islamic civilization is not confined to a single geographic location or time period; rather, it encompasses a wide range of societies and periods throughout history that have been shaped by Islamic beliefs, practices, and teachings.

Building a civilization is a complex endeavour that encompasses various factors, including economic resources, political systems, moral traditions, science, and the arts. Islamic civilization, characterized by its profound impact on history and its emphasis on humanity, exhibits distinctive features that have contributed to its enduring legacy. The following are key features that define the Islamic civilization:

1. Monotheistic Foundation: God’s Sovereignty

At the core of Islamic civilization lies the concept of monotheism. Islam proclaims the belief in the absolute oneness of God, free from any partners or associates in His rule. This unique understanding of monotheism liberates the human intellect from servitude to earthly powers and religious authorities, fostering an intellectual environment conducive to exploration and progress. The Islamic civilization was built upon the teachings of Islam, as laid out in the Quran (the holy book) and the Hadith (the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad).

The concept of monotheism (belief in one God), ethical guidelines, and the principles of social justice and compassion formed the basis of this civilization. These were reflected in Islamic art, literature, and philosophy, emphasizing unity and oneness. Islamic art across diverse regions shares a common style and character, reflecting the vertical direction pointing upward towards unity.

2. Universality and Human Inclination

The Islamic civilization’s universal outlook recognizes the inherent unity of humankind despite differences in race, nationality, and ethnicity. The Quran explicitly acknowledges the oneness of humanity. Islam upholds the values of equality, justice, dignity, and goodness as the cornerstones of its civilization. This inclusive message attracted brilliant minds from various backgrounds, contributing to the intellectual richness of Islamic civilization.

3. Moral Foundation

The Islamic civilization places strong moral principles at the heart of its systems, whether political, economic, familial, scientific, or military. Moral values guide legislation, governance, and interpersonal relationships. This emphasis on ethics distinguishes civilization from approaches that prioritize expediency over principles. The legacy of Islamic morality reinforces the idea that the ends do not justify the means.

4. Quest for Knowledge

One of the hallmarks of Islamic civilization is its unwavering pursuit of knowledge across disciplines. This pursuit engages both rational and emotional faculties, fostering a balanced intellectual environment. Islamic civilization nurtured an intellectual framework grounded in truth, justice, religion, and belief. Islamic civilization is renowned for its emphasis on education and the pursuit of knowledge. Islamic scholars preserved and expanded upon the works of ancient civilizations like Greece, Rome, Persia, and India.

The establishment of madrasas (educational institutions) facilitated the transmission of knowledge in fields such as theology, philosophy, law, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and more. The dissemination of knowledge from centres such as Cairo, Cordoba, Damascus, Baghdad, and Granada had a global impact. Knowledge was accessible to all seekers, irrespective of social status, clergy, or wealth.

5. Religious Tolerance

Islamic civilization stands out for its exceptional religious tolerance. Despite being rooted in a single religion, it embraced and respected diverse beliefs and invited people of different faiths to coexist harmoniously. Unlike instances of religious persecution or discrimination, the Islamic civilization demonstrated a commitment to treating individuals of various or no beliefs with equality and justice. This tolerance exemplified the greatness of civilization. Islamic civilization often exhibited cultural tolerance, allowing diverse groups to coexist and contribute to the overall fabric of society. This inclusivity allowed for the assimilation of various artistic, scientific, and intellectual traditions.

Achievements of Islamic Civilisation

Islamic civilization, spanning over a millennium, emerged as a result of the expansion of Islam across vast regions, encompassing diverse cultures, peoples, and landscapes. It was characterized by a combination of religious, cultural, scientific, and artistic achievements that left an indelible mark on human history.

  1. Advancements in Science and Medicine: Islamic scholars made significant contributions to various scientific disciplines, particularly astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Pioneering figures like Al-Razi, Al-Kindi, and Ibn Sina made groundbreaking advancements in medicine, introducing concepts like clinical observation, medical ethics, and pharmacology.
  2. Architecture and Art: Islamic architecture is characterized by intricate geometric patterns, calligraphy, and the innovative use of domes, arches, and minarets. The construction of mosques, palaces, and mausoleums displayed both religious and artistic expression, with notable examples including the Alhambra in Spain and the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.
  3. Trade and Commerce: Islamic civilization facilitated extensive trade networks, connecting the East and West through the Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea. Cities like Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba became thriving centres of trade, culture, and intellectual exchange, fostering economic growth and cultural diversity.
  4. Legal and Philosophical Thought: Islamic legal scholars developed a comprehensive legal system known as Sharia, based on the Quran and Hadith, that addressed matters of personal conduct, family law, and commerce. Philosophers like Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes engaged with Greek philosophy, contributing to the synthesis of rational and religious thought.
  5. Literature and Poetry: Arabic literature flourished, with the Quran itself regarded as a masterpiece of linguistic and literary excellence. Renowned poets like Rumi, Omar Khayyam, and Al-Mutanabbi made significant contributions to poetry, touching on themes of love, spirituality, and nature.
  6. Urban Planning and Infrastructure: Islamic cities were designed with a focus on functionality, aesthetics, and community needs. Concepts like public squares, bazaars, and water management systems were integral to urban planning.
  7. Influence on the European Renaissance: The transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe during the Middle Ages played a pivotal role in the European Renaissance, influencing fields like science, medicine, and philosophy.
  8. Calligraphy and Manuscript Illumination: Calligraphy, as a form of artistic expression, holds a special place in Islamic culture, often adorning religious texts and buildings. Manuscript illumination involved the intricate decoration of texts with gold leaf, intricate patterns, and vibrant colours.
  9. Sufism and Mysticism: Sufism, a mystical dimension of Islam, focuses on the inner spiritual journey and the connection with the divine. Sufi poets and scholars contributed to a unique blend of spirituality and artistic expression.

Islamic civilization, spanning over a millennium, emerged as a result of the expansion of Islam across vast regions, encompassing diverse cultures, peoples, and landscapes. It was characterized by a combination of religious, cultural, scientific, and artistic achievements that left an indelible mark on human history.

The Islamic civilization’s enduring impact on history is characterized by its monotheistic foundation, universal outlook, moral principles, pursuit of knowledge, and religious tolerance. These features not only contributed to the civilization’s intellectual and artistic achievements but also set it apart as a beacon of humanity and progress. The legacy of Islamic civilization continues to inspire and shape the world, reflecting its commitment to unity, justice, and knowledge for all.

Challenges Facing Islam, Islamic Civilization, and Muslim Countries

Islam and its followers, encompassing a rich history and diverse cultures, have encountered a series of multifaceted challenges in recent times. These challenges arise from both internal dynamics and external influences, collectively posing significant hurdles to the progress and stability of Islam, Islamic civilization, and Muslim countries.

1. Existential Challenge

Western propaganda and misrepresentation have perpetuated negative stereotypes about Islam and Muslims, attributing the actions of a few to the entire faith. This challenge involves countering misconceptions that Islam is inherently responsible for global conflicts and acts of violence. Muslims must engage in constructive dialogue to present the true teachings of Islam and demonstrate that it is a religion of peace, compassion, and tolerance.

2. Identity Crisis: Internal

The internal schisms within Islam, particularly the Sunni-Shia divide, have led to divergent interpretations of the faith. Debates between various sects, such as Salafi, Wahhabi, and traditionalist groups, have led to confusion about the genuine path of Islam. Addressing this challenge requires fostering a spirit of unity and emphasizing the common core values that bind Muslims together while respecting their diverse traditions.

3. Identity Crisis: External

Globalization, while fostering interconnectedness, has also led to concerns about cultural erosion. Muslims grapple with preserving their distinct identities while participating in the global community. Striking a balance between embracing modernity and retaining cultural and religious values requires thoughtful efforts to adapt without compromising fundamental principles.

4. Global Image:

Many Muslim countries face the negative portrayal of being underdeveloped, prone to terrorism, and lacking in civilization. This skewed perception impacts foreign relations, trade, and tourism. To counter this challenge, Muslim countries should invest in education, innovation, and sustainable development to showcase their contributions to science, art, and culture, challenging stereotypes and promoting a more accurate global image.

5. Alienation of Youth:

The rise of atheism among Muslim youth poses a significant challenge to Islamic communities. Factors contributing to this trend include exposure to secular ideologies and a lack of religious education. Addressing this challenge requires engaging young Muslims through open discussions, relevant religious education, and creating spaces for them to explore their faith within a contemporary context.

6. Underdevelopment

Many Muslim countries struggle with economic disparities, lack of access to quality education, and technological advancements. These challenges contribute to poverty, limited scientific progress, and slow economic growth. Overcoming underdevelopment requires investing in education, research, and economic diversification, with a focus on empowering marginalized populations.

7. Islamophobia

Muslims across the world face discrimination, prejudice, and even violence due to Islamophobia. This challenge necessitates concerted efforts to counter misinformation, promote interfaith dialogue, and strengthen alliances with non-Muslim communities to foster understanding and harmony.

8. Disunity:

Internal divisions among Muslim countries often hinder collaborative efforts to address shared humanitarian concerns and geopolitical conflicts. Striving for unity on critical issues such as Kashmir, Palestine, Afghanistan, and Syria requires setting aside differences and focusing on shared values and the broader well-being of the Muslim ummah.


The challenges facing Islam, Islamic civilization, and Muslim countries are intricate and multifaceted. Addressing these challenges requires a combination of internal introspection, external communication, education, technological advancement, and fostering unity among Muslim communities. By embracing diversity, promoting true Islamic teachings, and actively participating in the global discourse, Muslims can navigate these challenges and contribute positively to the global community while preserving their cultural and religious identities.

From the book “21 Muslim Political Philosophers: A Hand Book”, published by Amazon and available at