Federalism in Pakistan: Challenges & Response

  1. Ideational Theories, hold that a greater degree of ideological commitment to decentralist ideas in society makes federalism more likely to be adopted.
  2. Cultural-historical Theories, hold that federal institutions are more likely to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations.
  3. Social Contract Theories, hold that federalism emerges as a bargain between a center and a periphery where the center is not powerful enough to dominate the periphery and the periphery is not powerful enough to secede from the center.
  4. “Infrastructural Power” Theories, which hold that federalism is likely to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation already have highly developed infrastructures (e.g. they are already constitutional, parliamentary, and administratively modernized states).

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  1. Causes of the Breakup of United Pakistan in 1971: Lessons Learnt

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