Comparative Analysis of the BRI and the IMEC

Shahid H. Raja
9 min readSep 21, 2023


The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) are two ambitious infrastructure and economic development projects that have garnered significant attention on the global stage. While BRI, initiated by China in 2013, is already in motion, IMEC is currently in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) stage. In this essay, we will compare these two initiatives based on several key factors, including their scale, geographical coverage, transportation modes, directionality, and the scope of the projects involved.

  1. Difference in the Scope of Projects

BRI is known for its multidimensional package, which includes a wide array of projects ranging from infrastructure development (roads, railways, and ports) to energy projects, fibre optics, agriculture, and industrial zones. It is a comprehensive initiative designed to address various development needs in participating countries.

In contrast, IMEC’s scope appears to be more limited, with a primary focus on shipping lanes and rail and road infrastructure. This indicates that IMEC may not encompass the same breadth of development opportunities as BRI.

2. Difference in the Scale of Investment

One of the most significant distinctions between BRI and IMEC is the scale of investment. BRI is an extensive project with an estimated value of around US$8 trillion. This vast financial commitment covers a wide range of infrastructure and development projects across multiple countries. In contrast, IMEC is projected to involve significantly smaller investments, possibly amounting to only a few billion dollars. This significant disparity in scale indicates that BRI has the potential to create a more substantial impact on the global economy.

3. Difference in the Geographical Coverage

BRI is known for its extensive geographical coverage, encompassing approximately 150 countries. These countries are predominantly developing or emerging economies, making BRI a truly global initiative. On the other hand, the IMEC is planned to cover around 20 countries, primarily in the Middle East and Europe. These countries are generally more economically developed compared to the BRI’s participant nations. Thus, BRI’s reach is far broader than that of IMEC.

4. Difference in Initiation and Progress

BRI was officially launched by China in 2013 and has been actively pursued since then. It has seen substantial investments and progress across various regions. In contrast, IMEC is still in the MOU stage, indicating that it is in the preliminary planning and negotiation phase. This difference in initiation and progress suggests that BRI has a significant head start over IMEC.

5. Difference in the Transportation Modes

Another key difference between BRI and IMEC lies in the transportation modes they predominantly rely on. BRI is characterized by its diverse transportation network, with approximately 70% of the initiative focused on land-based routes, including roads and railways.

IMEC, on the other hand, primarily emphasizes sea transportation. It envisions the development of shipping lanes and rail and road connections. This contrast reflects the geographic and logistical differences between the two initiatives.

6. Difference in the Directionality

BRI is a multi-directional initiative with global tentacles. It aims to connect China with various parts of Asia, Europe, Africa, and even the Americas. This multi-directional approach facilitates enhanced connectivity and trade opportunities.

In contrast, IMEC is planned to be unidirectional, primarily connecting India to Europe. While this focused approach has its advantages, it may limit the diversity of trade routes and opportunities compared to the BRI’s comprehensive network.

Prospects of the India-Middle East-Europe-Economic Corridor (IMEC)

Introduction: The India-Middle East-Europe-Economic Corridor (IMEC) is a transformative infrastructure project that seeks to connect the Indian subcontinent with Europe via the Middle East, creating a seamless trade route. It has bright prospects of success for the following reasons:

  1. Rebranding of Existing Route: With 70% of the corridor comprising sea lanes, IMEC is 90% already complete or operational, significantly reducing the need for extensive terrestrial infrastructure. The European leg of the corridor is already well connected with the railroad network, further facilitating transportation. The primary infrastructure requirement remaining is in Saudi Arabia, where the Chinese, known for their rapid infrastructure development, could play a pivotal role. Completing this segment within five years is an ambitious yet achievable goal, given China’s track record.
  2. Financial Viability and the Wealth of Participating Countries: IMEC’s unique advantage lies in the fact that, compared to BRI, it is a small project that passes through wealthy countries and is a project of the “Rich Men’s Club.” The participating nations, including India, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, and European nations, have the financial capacity to fund and support the corridor’s development. This minimizes the financial burden on any single nation and ensures a shared investment in the project’s success.
  3. Fear of Chinese Dominance: The rise of China has spurred concerns among many nations involved in IMEC, driving them to take the project seriously and expedite its early completion. The corridor tries to provide an alternative trade route that could reduce dependence on China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and offer greater strategic autonomy. This fear of Chinese dominance in the region is a powerful motivator for these countries to work collaboratively towards IMEC’s realization.
  4. Role of the Robust Private Sector: The private sector in the participating countries, including India, Middle Eastern nations, and European economies, is well-equipped and eager to undertake infrastructure projects. They see IMEC as a lucrative opportunity for investment and growth. Private sector involvement can significantly expedite project implementation, as it often operates with greater efficiency and innovation than purely state-led initiatives.
  5. Economic Benefits and Regional Integration: IMEC’s completion would not only bolster international trade but also foster regional economic integration. The corridor would facilitate the flow of goods, services, and investments, spurring economic growth in participating countries. Additionally, it could serve as a model for cooperation between regions that have often been viewed as separate entities, enhancing regional stability and prosperity. These prospects of rapid growth through connectivity raise its prospects.
  6. Energy Security: The Middle East is a significant source of energy resources, and IMEC would strengthen energy security for both India and Europe. Diversifying energy supply routes reduces vulnerability to disruptions and price fluctuations, ensuring a stable energy supply for these energy-hungry regions.
  7. Environmental Considerations: As claimed by its proponents, IMEC’s maritime routes and well-connected rail networks are more environmentally friendly than alternative transportation options. As global concern for climate change grows, the corridor’s environmental benefits, including reduced carbon emissions and lower transportation costs, are increasingly significant.

Challenges for India-Middle East-European Economic Corridor (IMEC)

While the India-Middle East-Europe-Economic Corridor (IMEC) holds great promise, it is also beset with numerous challenges that could impede its successful execution.

  1. Complex Coordination Among Numerous Countries: IMEC involves approximately 20 countries, each with its own set of interests, priorities, and bureaucratic processes. The coordination required to execute a project of this magnitude is formidable. Unlike the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which benefits from centralized decision-making, IMEC’s multi-country nature makes decision-making slow and complex. Coordinating regulatory frameworks and customs procedures and resolving disputes among such a diverse group of nations is a daunting task that could lead to delays and inefficiencies.
  2. Financial Hurdles and Debt Burdens: Despite being termed a “Rich Men’s Club,” many of the participating countries in IMEC are grappling with significant debt burdens. This financial strain raises questions about where the funding for IMEC will come from. While India and Saudi Arabia may have the capacity to finance their portions of the project, the other countries may struggle to allocate funds for their commitments. Dependence on foreign loans or international institutions could exacerbate the debt problem and compromise the corridor’s economic viability.
  3. Geopolitical and Security Concerns: IMEC’s route passes through some of the world’s most geopolitically sensitive regions, including the Middle East. Geopolitical rivalries, conflicts, and security issues could pose serious challenges to the smooth operation of the corridor. Regional tensions, such as those in the Persian Gulf, could disrupt trade flows, deter private-sector investment, and necessitate costly security measures. These uncertainties could deter investors and make it challenging to ensure the corridor’s safety.
  4. Environmental and Regulatory Issues: The construction and operation of IMEC could raise environmental concerns, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. Balancing economic development with environmental preservation and adhering to international environmental standards will be a complex task. Striking this balance while meeting the diverse regulatory requirements of multiple countries along the route is a daunting challenge.
  5. Infrastructure Gaps and Technological Integration: While IMEC may rely heavily on sea routes and existing rail networks, addressing infrastructure gaps and ensuring technological compatibility across borders remains a significant challenge. Ensuring that roads, ports, railways, and digital infrastructure are seamlessly integrated to facilitate trade and logistics is a formidable task, especially when different countries may have varying levels of infrastructure development.

Challenges to Pakistan’s Geopolitical Significance from IMEC

The India-Middle East-Europe-Economic Corridor (IMEC) has been widely discussed as a potential game-changer in the region. However, it’s important to address the exaggerated hype surrounding IMEC and its potential impact on Pakistan’s geopolitical significance, especially in the context of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

  1. Misconceptions about IMEC’s Scale: One of the primary challenges facing Pakistan is the misconception surrounding IMEC’s scale and its comparison to the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). While IMEC is undoubtedly a significant project, it is on a much smaller scale compared to BRI, particularly the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The financial magnitude of CPEC alone is several times larger than the entire IMEC project. However, the perception in India, and to some extent globally, has been inflated, creating unwarranted expectations that IMEC could diminish the significance of CPEC. It is essential to emphasize that BRI and CPEC remain massive undertakings that play a pivotal role in Pakistan’s geopolitical importance.
  2. Pakistan’s Unique Geopolitical Location: Pakistan’s strategic geographic location is integral to the regional dynamics of South Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Its proximity to China, Iran, Afghanistan, and India makes it a critical player in regional geopolitics, trade, and connectivity. IMEC, as a project primarily focused on India, the Middle East, and Europe, does not diminish Pakistan’s strategic importance in the region. Pakistan’s role as a crossroads for regional trade and energy routes remains unparalleled, and its significance cannot be easily replaced by projects like IMEC.
  3. IMEC’s Dependence on Pakistan: IMEC, if realized, would require Pakistan’s cooperation and access to its territory for any overland connectivity between India and the Middle East. Pakistan’s participation would be essential for the corridor to function efficiently. This dependency on Pakistan underscores its continued geopolitical relevance in the region. Any attempt to bypass Pakistan would involve much longer and costlier routes through alternative countries, making IMEC economically unviable.
  4. Geopolitical Realities: The complex geopolitical realities in South Asia, including the India-Pakistan rivalry, further highlight Pakistan’s enduring importance. Regional stability and cooperation are prerequisites for any large-scale infrastructure project to succeed. Without resolving longstanding conflicts and addressing security concerns, the seamless operation of IMEC is unlikely.


The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) represent two distinct approaches to infrastructure development and economic integration. BRI, with its larger scale, extensive geographical coverage, and multi-directional network, is poised to have a more significant global impact. IMEC, while promising, is still in its early stages and is primarily oriented toward connecting India with Europe through sea and land routes. The choice between these two initiatives will depend on the strategic objectives and economic priorities of the countries involved, with each offering its own unique set of opportunities and challenges.

While IMEC may offer economic benefits and enhanced connectivity, it is crucial to recognize that Pakistan’s geopolitical significance remains intact. The exaggerated comparisons between IMEC and CPEC or BRI should be tempered with an understanding of the unique role that Pakistan plays in regional geopolitics. Pakistan’s strategic location, its crucial role in facilitating connectivity, and the necessity of its cooperation in realizing IMEC make it clear that Pakistan’s geopolitical significance cannot be diminished by the emergence of new projects like IMEC. Instead, Pakistan’s involvement and collaboration should be seen as integral to the success of any regional connectivity initiative.

From the book “International Relations: Basic Concepts and Global Issues”, published by Amazon and available at