Islamophobia is the irrational hostility, fear, or hatred of Islam, Muslims, and Islamic culture, and active discrimination against these groups or individuals within them. It manifests itself through individual attitudes and behaviours, and the policies and practices of organizations and institutions.

This article attempts to clarify the concept, identify…


Culture is an umbrella term that encompasses the social behaviour and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Every culture is a product of multiple and diverse factors ranging from history, geography to…

“Judge a man by his questions rather than by his answers.” Voltaire

Are you one of those who are afraid of what someone will think if you ask a question during the meetings or after listening to a thought-provoking lecture? Do not worry, you are not alone. More than 95…


The Vietnam War which lasted from 1955 to 1975 was fought between North Vietnam (supported by the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea) and South Vietnam (supported by the United States, and its allies) was the longest war during the Cold War period. …

Shahid Hussain Raja

Retired Federal Secretary ,Government of Pakistan/Independent Consultant- Public Policy. Specialization-agriculture,food security,governance reforms

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store